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Friday, July 31, 2020 | History

3 edition of Reconnaissance of Scandium Sources and Recovery of Scandium From Uranium Mill Solutions. found in the catalog.

Reconnaissance of Scandium Sources and Recovery of Scandium From Uranium Mill Solutions.

United States. Bureau of Mines.

Reconnaissance of Scandium Sources and Recovery of Scandium From Uranium Mill Solutions.

by United States. Bureau of Mines.

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Published by s.n in S.l .
Written in English


Edition Notes

1

SeriesReport of investigations (United States. Bureau of Mines) -- 6064
ContributionsRoss, J., Rosenbaum, J.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL21742856M

  The global scandium market is tiny, with total production estimated at only tonnes per annum, all of which is currently produced as a by-product. Despite the small size of the market, scandium had been generating some excitement over the past few years due to its potential in aluminium alloys. Scandium in the environment. Scandium can rarely be found in nature, as it occurs in very small amounts. Scandium is usually found only in two different kinds of ores. Thortveitite is the primary source of scandium with uranium mill tailings by-products also being an important source. World production amount to only 50 kg per year.

Leaching scandium from scandium concentrate by adding hydrochloric acid and leaching aid agent [J]. hydrometallurgy of china, , 24(3): [6] Zhu Minjie, Shen Chunying, Qiu Li. The present situation of research on rare element sc[J]. Provided is a method for selectively extracting and inexpensively recovering scandium from an acidic solution containing calcium, magnesium, and scandium. The scandium extraction method according to the present invention involves subjecting an acidic solution containing calcium, magnesium, and scandium to solvent extraction using an extraction agent consisting of an amide derivative.

@article{osti_, title = {A PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF URANIUM AND SCANDIUM FROM URANIUM REFINERY RAFFINATES}, author = {Lang, G P and Kuhlman, C W and Ruehle, A E}, abstractNote = {A process for the removal of the residual uranium amd scandium from refinery raffinates based on an extraction with % TBP, was developed. More than 99% of the uranium and 80% of the scandium . An atom of Scandium in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Scandium. Sc + e – → Sc – – ∆H = Affinity = kJ/mol To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign.


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Reconnaissance of Scandium Sources and Recovery of Scandium From Uranium Mill Solutions by United States. Bureau of Mines. Download PDF EPUB FB2

The separation of uranium, iron and scandium is achieved by the following process wherein a material containing these values is dissolved in mineral acid to form an aqueous solution, thereafter, an iminodiacetic acid cationic ion exchange resin is used to retain a major portion of the scandium and uranium.

A raffinate containing the iron is by: Reconnaissance of scandium sources and recovery of scandium from uranium mill solutions /. Ross and Rosenbaum () reported a solvent extraction process with primary amine such as Primene JMT as extractant for scandium recovery from uranium mill waste solutions.

Scandium was almost quantitatively extracted from the waste solution containing mg/L Sc in a small scale pilot plant operation with % Primene JMT in kerosene at an A Cited by: J.

Ross and J. Rosenbaum "Reconnaissance of scandium sources and recovery o Scandium from uranium mill solutions" in Report of Bureau of Mines (U.S. Ross JR, Rosenbaum JB () Reconnaissance of Scandium Sources and Recovery of Scandium from Uranium Hill Solutions, USBM report RI Google Scholar 2.

Ross JR, Schack CH () Recovery of Scandium from Uranium Plant Iron Sludge and from Wolframite Concentrates, USBM report RI Google ScholarCited by: 2.

The commercial recovery of scandium as a by-product of uranium extraction is described. A flouride strip system was developed to recover scandium from the solvent in concentrated form, and high purity scandium oxide was prepared in multi-pound lots by chemical separation techniques.

Viable sources of scandium include nickel-cobalt laterites, uranium processing wastes, residues from titanium oxide production and bauxite residues (so called red mud) [8] [9][10][11][12][ Scandium was almost completely extracted from the uranium raffinate that contained mg/L of Sc with % of Primene JMT in kerosene at the A/O ratio of Scandium was stripped with 2 mol/L of NaCl solution (pH ~ 1) at the A/O ratio of The scandium was then precipitated from the stripped solution with ammonia solution.

Scandium has long been recognized as a valuable commodity. Economic concentrations of scandium are rare. Supply currently is sourced from low-grade stockpiles or as a by-product from other mineral processing operations. Limited supply sources has resulted in high market prices and the wide spread uptake of scandium products has slowed because.

Prospective industrial sources of scandium in Russia Source Sc content Uranium leach liquors (ULL) Uranium ores Up to % Tungsten ores –%. Scandium was recovered in the United States and Australia only if uranium mills produced a scandium-enriched iron slag, perhaps an unintended consequence.

Processing methods for sandstone uranium ores are variable, but generally are designed to oxidize the low valence state of the ore phases and thereby promote dissolution of those phases.

Scandium is found in small proportions, generally less than percent, in many of the heavy lanthanide ores and in many tin, uranium, and tungsten ores. Thortveitite (a scandium silicate) is the only mineral containing large amounts of scandium, about 34 percent, but unfortunately this mineral is quite rare and is not an important source of.

Scandium for commercial uses is extracted from uranium mill tailings and comes mainly from China and Russia. World production of the oxide amounts to only around two tonnes per year.

The metal itself is produced by heating scandium fluoride (ScF 3) with calcium metal and it costs around $70 per gram. The patents relate to the extraction and recovery of scandium from ores, solutions and byproducts; the conversion of scandium intermediates into master alloy and the composition and manufacturing.

Most scandium is presently being recovered from thortveitite or is extracted as a by-product from uranium mill tailings. Metallic scandium was first prepared in by Fischer, Brunger, and Grienelaus who electrolyzed a eutectic melt of potassium, lithium, and scandium chlorides at to o C.

Tungsten wire and a pool of molten zinc. Sources. Scandium is rare, with only a very small amount of worldwide production per year.

It is present in minute quantities in many minerals, notably monazite. However, it is only economical to extract it from uranium ore tailings and from the minerals euxenite, gadolinite and thortveitite. Scandium can be recovered from thortveitite or extracted as a by-product from uranium mill tailings (sandy waste material).

Metallic scandium can be prepared by reducing the fluoride with calcium metal. It can also be prepared by electrolysing molten potassium, lithium and scandium chlorides, using electrodes of tungsten wire and molten zinc.

This means that scandium rarely concentrates at higher levels alongside other metals, with trace quantities produced as a by-product of uranium, tungsten and nickel ore processing. While scandium. The references in the listing provide some sources of information on the Wilmarth, V.R., and Johnson.

D.H.,Preliminary reconnaissance survey of thorium, uranium, and rare earth oxides, Bear Lodge Mountains, Crook County, recovery of scandium from uranium mill solutions: U.S.

Bureau of Mines Report of Investigations16 p. Other sources of the metal — in oxide form and as a byproduct (around tonnes per annum of scandium oxide)—have been given variously as Bayan Obo. Decem — Scandium International Mining Corp. (TSX: SCY) (“Scandium International” or the “Company”) is pleased to announce that it has both revised and renewed an existing scandium product offtake sales agreement entered into in with Alcereco Inc., a private Canadian aluminum alloy specialty research and manufacturing company, located in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.Rosn, J.

R., eNn J B. RosnNlauu () Reconnaissance of scandium sources and recovery of Sc from uranium mill solutions. U. S. Bur. Mi'nes, Rep. Inttest',6O64, 16p' SucRenrrxe, V.

V. () Factors determining the geochemical distribution of scandium- G eo h himm iolG eo c. Scandium exists in small amounts in approximately different minerals.

It is also the major constituent of thortveitite—a rare mineral from Scandinavia and Malagasy. This mineral is the key source of scandium and is most typically generated as uranium mill tailings or as a by-product.